According to this new study, a cancer “vaccine” has eliminated 97% of tumors with amazing success in mice. This is about to lead to human trials.
Minute amounts of two immune-stimulating agents were injected directly into solid tumors in mice showed evidence of eliminating all traces of cancer in the animals, including distant, untreated metastases.
The approach works for many different types of cancers, including those that arise spontaneously.
The researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine believe the local application of tiny amounts of the agents could serve as a rapid and relatively inexpensive cancer therapy that is unlikely to cause the adverse side effects often seen with immune stimulation throughout the body.
“When we use these two agents together, we see the elimination of tumors all over the body,” said Ronald Levy, professor of oncology. “This approach bypasses the need to identify tumor-specific immune targets and doesn’t require wholesale activation of the immune system or customization of a patient’s immune cells.”
One agent is currently already approved for use in humans; the other agent has been tested for human use in several unrelated clinical trials. A clinical trial was launched in January to test the effect of the treatment in patients with lymphoma.
Levy, who is the senior author of the study, is also a pioneer in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Many other kinds of immunotherapy that have been used to treat cancer have been successful, but they each have downsides — from difficult-to-handle side effects to high-cost and lengthy preparation or treatment times.
“All of these immunotherapy advances are changing medical practice,” Levy said. “Our approach uses a one-time application of very small amounts of two agents to stimulate the immune cells only within the tumor itself. In the mice, we saw amazing, body-wide effects, including the elimination of tumors all over the animal.”
The approach worked surprisingly well in laboratory mice with transplanted mouse lymphoma tumors in two sites on their bodies. Injecting one tumor site with the two agents caused the regression not just of the treated tumor, but also of the second, untreated tumor. In this way, 87 of 90 mice were cured of the cancer.
Although the cancer recurred in three of the mice, the tumors again regressed after a second treatment. The researchers saw similar results in mice bearing breast, colon and melanoma tumors.
Mice genetically engineered to spontaneously develop breast cancers in all 10 of their mammary pads also responded to the treatment. Treating the first tumor that arose often prevented the occurrence of future tumors and significantly increased the animals’ life span, the researchers found.
The current clinical trial is expected to recruit about 15 human patients with low-grade lymphoma. If successful, Levy believes the treatment could be useful for many tumor types.
He envisions a future in which clinicians inject the two agents into solid tumors in humans prior to surgical removal of the cancer as a way to prevent recurrence due to unidentified metastases or lingering cancer cells, or even to head off the development of future tumors that arise due to genetic mutations.
“I don’t think there’s a limit to the type of tumor we could potentially treat, as long as it has been infiltrated by the immune system,” Levy said.
(Source: Stanford Medicine News Center)